Essential idea: Immunity is based on recognition of self and destruction of foreign material.
The false coloured electron micrograph shows a macrophage (red) engulfing tuberculosis bacteria (yellow). After the bacteria are engulfed and digested the bacterial surface antigens (molecules that provoke an immune response) are attached to the cell membrane and presented to lymphocytes hence generating a specific immune response.
Understandings, applications and skills
|Every organism has unique molecules on the surface of its cells.
|Pathogens can be species-specific although others can cross species barriers.
|B lymphocytes are activated by T lymphocytes in mammals. [Limit the immune response to mammals. ]
|Activated B cells multiply to form clones of plasma cells and memory cells.
|Plasma cells secrete antibodies.
|Antibodies aid the destruction of pathogens.
|White cells release histamine in response to allergens.
|Histamines cause allergic symptoms.
|Immunity depends upon the persistence of memory cells.
|Vaccines contain antigens that trigger immunity but do not cause the disease.
|Fusion of a tumour cell with an antibody-producing plasma cell creates a hybridoma cell.
|Monoclonal antibodies are produced by hybridoma cells.
|Smallpox was the first infectious disease of humans to have been eradicated by vaccination.
|Monoclonal antibodies to HCG are used in pregnancy test kits.
|Antigens on the surface of red blood cells stimulate antibody production in a person with a different blood group.
|Analysis of epidemiological data related to vaccination programmes.
[Text in square brackets indicates guidance notes]
Specific Immunity - a musical introduction by Mr W
Has the needle had it's day? Are vaccine patches the way forward? An interesting TED talk on a new innovation in medical technology.
Use vaccines as a weapon against antibiotic-resistant bacteria by New Scientist
The article proposes wider, more effective use of vaccines to combat the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria (link to 6.3). Discuss the article, the benefits, problems and resistance societies might have to adopting policies to support such a way forward.
Presentation and notes
The presentation is designed to help your understanding.
The 6.3 + 11.1 Immunology notes - the bottom line template can be used as a note construction template in itself or as a checklist if you are using your own or another template such as the Cornell style template.
Nature of science
Consider ethical implications of research - Jenner tested his vaccine for smallpox on a child. (4.5)
The World Health Organization initiated the campaign for the global eradication of smallpox in 1967. The campaign was deemed a success in 1977, only 10 years later.